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Archaeology in Rome - ITALY

Archaeological parks in Rome:

~ Colosseo o Anfiteatro Flavio (Colosseum or Flavio Amphitheatre);
~ Fori Imperiali (Imperial Forum);
~ Colle Palatino (Palatine Hill);
~ Pantheon;
~ Terme di Caracalla (Caracalla's baths);


(Colosseum or Flavio Amphitheatre)
Rome, 100 mt
- Colosseo (Colosseum or Flavio Amphitheatre)
It is the capital city's most representative monument. It was built under Vespasiano in 75 A.D. where there was the small lake of the Domus Aurea.
It is situated between Colle Palatino (Palatine Hill) and Colle Oppio (Oppio Hill). The arena is 76 metres long and 46 metres wide and the terraces could hold 45,000 people; the facade is made of travertin, is 57 metres high and it is a mixture of four arhitectonic orders: you can see 80 arches in the first three orders and some windows in the fourth order. The gladiators' performances, the fightings between men and animals and the early Christians' martyrdom took place at the Colosseum.
Below the arena there was an underground area with the games' machines and the passages for gladiators and animals.
The present imponent monument survived some strong earthquakes in 442 and in 508 whereas two rows of arches collapsed because of the earthquake of the year 851. Afterwards restoration works took place thanks to some Popes, i.e. Pio VII, Leone XII, Gregorio XVI and Pio IX.


(Fori Imperiali (Imperial Forum))
Rome, 100 mt
- Fori Imperiali (Imperial Forum)
The Roman Forum were wide squares where people's assemblies, the meetings where justice was done and business negotiations took place. Behind the Colosseum you can find an archaeological park, unique in the world, made up of Colle Palatino (Palatine Hill) and several Roman Forum.
Do not miss this opportunity: come and visit Foro Romano (Roman Forum) and Foro Traiano (Trajan's Forum)!
  • Foro Romano (Roman Forum) was the heart of the political and social life in the ancient Rome. There you can visit the remains of Basilica Aemilia (Aemilia Basilica), which was built in 179 B.C. and used for currency dealing. On the right side, the ancient street Argiletum's pavement divides the Basilica from the Curia, i.e. the seat of the Roman Senate. Behind it you can see on the right the Arco di Settimio Severo (Arch of Septimius Severus) dating back to 203 B.C. and on the left the remains of the I-century Tempio di Vespasiano (Vespasian's Temple). Along Via Sacra (Sacred Street) you can see the Tempio di Antonino e Faustina (Antonino and Faustina's Temple), which was built in 141 A.D. in honour of Emperor Antonino Pio's wife. Finally the Arco di Tito (Arch of Titus), situated at the bottom of Via Sacra, concludes the area of the Roman Forum.
  • Foro Traiano (Trajan's Forum) was the last forum to be built at the beginning of the second century. In the northern area you can see Basilica Ulpia, i.e. the place where laws were promulgated and money was distributed to people. Behind the Basilica there is Colonna Traiana (Trajan's Column). It is 40 metres high; in its plinth it is located Emperor Trajan's tomb and a spiral staircase getting to the column's top. Daci people's weapons are portrayed on the column's plinth whereas about 200-metre friezes portraying Trajan's two wars against that barbarian people twine around the column's marble shaft. The friezes portraying the first and the second war are separated by the god Victory writing on a shield.

You can also visit:
Foro di Cesare (Caesar's Forum), Foro di Augusto (Augustus's Forum), Foro di Nerva (Nerva's Forum) and Foro della Pace (Peace Forum).


(Colle Palatino (Palatine Hill))
Rome, 100 mt
- Colle Palatino (Palatine Hill)
The archaeological area of Colle Palatino is together with the area of Foro Romano one of the most important in the world. According to tradition, that hill was the seat of the foundation of the city by Romulus. In this archaeological site you can visit the remains of the Farnese family's gardens, i.e. the first botanical gardens in the world, commissioned by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in the sixteenth century. Further on you can find a big construction made for Domitian in the first century A.D. . It is formed by three areas:
  • Domus Flavia or Palazzo dei Flavi (Flavi Palace): the palace was the official seat of the emperor. It was made up of the peristyle (i.e. row of columns around a courtyard) in the middle and the basilica, the emperor hall and the triclinium (or dining room) around it.
  • Domus Augustana: it was the Emperor's private residence.The rooms are on two levels; the lower level was equipped with a system of tanks for the rainwater collection whereas the upper level holds the antiquarium palatino with a wide peristyle and a small temple.
  • Stadio (Stadium), where feasts and competitions took place.


Rome, 100 mt
- Pantheon
The Pantheon, the Savoia family's mausoleum, stands in Piazza Rotonda (Rotonda Square). It was built in 27 B.C. but its present look dates back to the second century A.D. . It is the Roman best preserved monument.
The Pantheon, a temple devoted to gods, is formed by two main parts: a round covered cupola-shaped room, whose diameter is 43,30 metres, and a rectangular atrium with portico.
Inside the Pantheon you can see Raffaello's tomb and the Madonna del Sasso statue by the artist Lorenzetto.


(Terme di Caracalla (Caracalla's baths))
Rome, 100 mt
- Terme di Caracalla (Caracalla's baths)
Terme di Caracalla are one of the biggest and best preserved baths of the ancient times. They were commissioned by Septimius Severus but they were unveiled during his son's reign,i.e. Marco Aurelio Antonino Bassiano called Caracalla, probably in 216 A.D.
The baths' remains are still thirty metres high in some points, so that you can form an opinion about the magnificence of the thermal complex. Only Diocletian's baths are bigger than Caracalla's baths.
The baths were used only for three centuries; they were definitely abandoned after 537 A.D. bacause Vitige, king of the Goti people, destroyed the aqueducts in order to besiege Rome.

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